A communication disorder is a speech and language disorder which refers to problems in communication and in related areas such as oral motor function. The delays and disorders can range from simple sound substitution to the inability to understand or use their native language.
- Expressive language disorder – Characterized by difficulty expressing oneself beyond simple sentences and a limited vocabulary. An individual understands language better than they are able to speak communicate it, they may have a lot to say but have difficulties organizing and retrieving the words to get an idea across beyond what is expected for his/her developmental stage.
- Mixed receptive-expressive language disorder – problems comprehending the commands of others.
- Stuttering – a speech disorder characterized by a break in fluency, where sounds, syllables or words may be repeated or prolonged.
- Phonological Disorder — a speech sound disorder characterized by problems in making patterns of sound errors, i.e. “dat” for “that”.
- Cluttering – a syndrome characterized by a speech delivery rate which is either abnormally fast, irregular, or both.
- Dysarthria – a condition that occurs when problems with the muscles that help you talk make it difficult to pronounce words.
- Oesophageal Voice – involves the patient injecting or swallowing air into the oesophagus. Once the patient has forced the air into their oesophagus, the air vibrates a muscle and creates oesophageal voice. Oesophageal voice tends to be difficult to learn and patients are often only able to talk in short phrases with a quiet voice.
- Lisp – having trouble with the pronunciation of sounds (s) and (z).
- Speech Sound Disorder – Speech-sound disorders (SSD) involve impairments in speech-sound production and range from mild articulation issues involving a limited number of speech sounds to more severe phonologic disorders involving multiple errors in speech-sound production and reduced intelligibility.
- Stuttering – a speech disorder in which sounds, syllables, or words are repeated or last longer than normal. These problems cause a break in the flow of speech.